War of 1812 Time Table
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The following is a chronological description of major events and battles that occurred before, during, and after the United States’ conflict with Great Britain for the rights of North American territories in the War of 1812.
|France and Britain at war||1792-1812||Europe||France officially declares war against Great Britain on February 1, 1793.|
|British impress American sailors||1803-1812||High Seas||British captains compel more than 10,000 American sailors to serve on British ships.|
|British monarchy||July 23||Abroad||The British decide in the frigate USS Essex case that American traders who travels between neutral and enemy ports will be justification for seizing many commercial ships.|
|James Madison has concerns with Britain||January 25||Washington, D.C.||Madison delivers report concerning British interference and impressment of sailors, causing anti-British feelings to arise.|
|British and American relations worsen||August||Europe||American minister James Monroe and envoy William Pinkney are unable to resolve the major problems between British and Americans concerning an ongoing commercial shipping and the impressment problem.|
|Napoleon excludes goods from “fortress Europe.”||November||Europe||British goods excluded from Europe by Napoleon. The British respond with a blockade, catching 1,000 American ships in the middle.|
|Monroe-Pinkney proposal||March||Washington, D.C.||Thomas Jefferson receives the Monroe-Pinkney treaty but does not submit it to Congress because it is regarded as a failure by the Americans.|
|Chesapeake - Leopard battle||June 22||Three miles off the Norfolk, Virginia coast||Three Americans are killed and 18 wounded when USS Chesapeake refuses to be boarded and becomes fired upon by the British Leopard.|
|Embargo Act||December 22||Washington, D.C.||Thomas Jefferson attempts “peaceful coercion” of the British with his embargo, but only results in economic disaster for merchants.|
|New president of the United States.||March 4||Washington, D.C.||James Madison is inaugurated president of the United States.|
|Newly elected House of Represenatives||1810||Washington, D.C.||”War Hawks” Henry Clay, John Calhoun and others are elected to Congress.|
|Battle of Tippecanoe||November 7||Ohio River Valley||Shawney Indians, led by Tecumseh’s brother Tenskwatawa (the prophet), lead attack on U.S. General William Henry Harrison’s army of 1,000 men.|
|President Madison is re-elected||January||Washington, D.C.||After becoming re-elected, Madison appointed the New Yorker General John Armstrong as the new secretary of war in the hope that Armstrong's appointment would help to cumulate support for the war effort.|
|America declares war against the British||June 18||Washington, D.C.||With extensive pressure by Congress’s War Hawks, Madison signs into action the inevitable. Also known as “Mr. Madison’s War” or “The Second American Revolution.”|
|Baltimore riots||June-August||Baltimore||Riots break out in Baltimore against anti-war Federalists.|
|U.S. conducts three invasions into Canada||July-November||U.S. Canadian Border/ Michigan||U.S. General William Hull’s attempted invasions into British territory are short lived owing to a shortage of volunteers.|
|British capture Ft. Mackinac||July 17||Michigan||U.S. loses the fort as British troops begin to occupy American territory.|
|Massacre at Fort Dearborn||August 15||Chicago||A procession of 148 American soldiers, women, and children are massacred by Potawatomi Indians while trying to retreat to Fort Wayne, Indiana. The fort is then burned by the British.|
|British capture Detroit||August 16||Michigan||Retreating Americans are overwhelmed by the British. U.S. loses the city to the British.|
|Guerriere versus Constitution||August 19||Atlantic Ocean||British HMS Guerriere loses to USS Constitution, “Old Ironsides.” More British ships are captured or burned by angry privateers.|
|Battle of Queenston Heights||October 13||Niagara frontier, Canada||U.S. Colonel Solomon Van Rensselaer and his army of some 5,000 are defeated by British troops.|
|Battle of Frenchtown||January 22||Michigan||British and Indian allies repel Kentucky troops in bloody battle.|
|Raisin River Massacre||January 23||Michigan||After a devastating defeat, American survivors of Frenchtown are slaughtered by Indians and the British.|
|U.S. holds onto Florida||April 15||Florida||American forces occupy only portions of Florida.|
|Battle of York||April 27||York (Toronto)||U.S. burns Toronto and takes control of the Great Lakes.|
|British blockade||May 26||Mid Atlantic/Southern U.S. states.||The British blockade is extended to additional southern and mid-Atlantic states.|
|Battle of Fort George||May 27||Canada||Ft. George is destroyed by American artillery fire and is captured.|
|Battle of Sacket’s Harbor||May 29||New York, New York||British forces are defeated at the American’s most important shipbuilding facility.|
|Battle of Stoney Creek||June 5||Canada||British forces defeat the Americans. The victory became a turning point when the British hold Canadian ground.|
|Battle of Crandy Island||June 22||Off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia.||Americans decisively defeat British forces' attempted invasion of the island, which saved the shipbuilding city of Norfolk.|
|Battle of Beaver Dams||June 24||Niagara frontier, Canada||British commander Lieutenant James FitzGibbon, a force of Mohawk, Odawa, and British soldiers ambush and capture a larger American army.|
|British attack Hampton||June 26||Hampton, Virginia||Foiled at the Battle of Craney Island, the British invaders pass northward across Hampton Roads to attack and capture the small town.|
|Battle of Burnt Corn||June 27||Southern Alabama||Also known as the “Red Stick War,” U.S. armed forces engage the Creek Indians in an eventual stalemate.|
|Battle of Ft. Stephenson||August 2||Detroit frontier||British Major General Henry Proctor and Tecumseh are defeated after numerous failed attacks against Lieutenant Colonel George Croghan’s U.S. forces.|
|Battle of Ft. Mims||August 30||Mobile, Alabama||The battle is a bloody victory for British commander Peter McQueen’s force of “Red Stick” Indians.|
|Battle of Lake Erie||September 10||Put-in-Bay||British naval attack is repulsed by Captain Perry|
|Battle of Thames||October 5||Ontario, Canada||Tecumseh is killed in a U.S. victory.|
|Battle of Chateaugay||October 26||Quebec||The battle became a bloody defeat for U.S. General Hampton’s army of 7,000. The British prevailed with only 750 Canadians and Indians, which forced the Americans to abandon their plans to attack Montreal.|
|Battle of Tallushatchee||November 3||Alabama||Part of the Indian Creek War. General Andrew Jackson orders General John Coffee and his 2,500 Tennessee militia into battle. U.S. forces defeat the “Red Stick” Creeks — killing 180 Indians.|
|British peace offers||November 4||Britain/U.S.||Britain offers direct peace negotiations to the United States.|
|Battle of Talladega||November 9||Alabama||The battle was a counterattack by the Red Sticks from the Battle of Tallushatchee. Andrew Jackson, Davy Crockett, and Tennessee militiamen inflict casualties on 410 Creek Indians. The U.S. victory forces many natives out of the area.|
|Battle of Chrysler’s Farm||November 11||near Montreal, Canada||Strategic errors lead to an American disaster. General Wilkinson’s army of 8,000 is beaten by 800 British regulars and Indians.|
|British blockade extends farther||November 16||U.S. mid Atlantic/Southern states||The British blockade has extended to all southern and mid-Atlantic states.|
|American retreat||November 23||U.S./Canadian border||All American forces withdraw from Canada.|
|U.S. attacks Ft. Erie||November 27||Erie||American forces make an initial attack at British-occupied Ft. Erie.|
|U.S. withdraws from Ft. George||December 10||Newark||American forces are forced out of Ft. George and they burn Newark.|
|British capture Ft. Niagara||December 18-19||Lewiston||Ft. Niagara is captured by the British in a night attack. British forces destroy Lewiston and neighboring towns.|
|British blockade||December 26||Chesapeake/Delaware||Chesapeake and Delaware bays are blockaded by the British.|
|Battle of Emuckfau||January 22||Alabama||Creek Indians (Red Sticks) defeat Jackson’s militia.|
|Battle of Enotachopco Creek||January 24||Alabama||General Jackson’s army is whipped by the Creek Indians once again.|
|British plan a three-part invasion of the U.S. at Chesapeake Bay, Lake Champlain and the mouth of the Mississippi River.||1814||Washington, D.C.||British troops are repulsed at Baltimore harbor after capturing Washington and burning the capital buildings.|
|British-French war subsides with a British victory.||March||Europe||With a French victory under their belt, the British can now direct all forces to the U.S.|
|Battle of Horseshoe Bend||March 27||Alexander City, Alabama||Andrew Jackson defeats the Creek Indians, inflicting 550 deaths.|
|Napoleon gives up throne of France||April 11||France||After a long-fought war with the British, Napoleon has little power over France.|
|Embargo and Non-Importation Law repealed by the U.S.||April 14||Washington, D.C.||This measure was repealed when news arrived that Napoleon’s defeat at Leipzig had opened all of northern Europe to British trade.|
|British blockade||April 25||New England||The British blockade is extended to New England.|
|Eastern Maine occupied by the British||July-September||Castine and Hampden, Maine||Overwhelming British presence forces the Americans to surrender with a letter of capitulation.|
|Fort Erie is captured by the Americans||July 3||Lake Ontario||The Americans recapture Ft. Erie and use the fort as a supply depot.|
|Battle of Chippewa||July 5||Upper Canada near Ft. Erie||American forces and General Winfield Scott decisively defeat British forces.|
|Battle of Lundy’s Lane||July 25||Near Niagara Falls, Canada||After five hours of bloody mahem and a combined casualty count of some 1,600 men, the battle between U.S. and British regulars results in a stalemate.|
|American public credit collapses||August||U.S.||Banks suspend money payments to U.S. citizens.|
|British petition for peace||August 8||Ghent, Belgium||Peace negotiations begin in Ghent as the British initiate their outline of peace terms.|
|Creek Indian Treaty||August 9||Ft. Jackson||The U.S. and Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Ft. Jackson.|
|Pensacola taken||August 14||Pensacola, Florida||British Army occupies Pensacola.|
|Battle of Ft. Erie||August 15||Lake Ontario||The British launch a four-pronged attack against American fortifications. Americans gain victory after inflicting more than 1,000 British casualties.|
|Battle of Bladensburg||August 24||Bladensburg, Maryland||British forces defeat U.S., which allows Britain to capture and burn Washington, D.C. Also known as the "Bladensburg Races" after American forces flee through the streets of Washington.|
|Washington burned||August 24-25||Washington, D.C.||The British burn Washington, D.C. and President James Madison flees the White House.|
|Nantucket declares neutrality||August 28||Nantucket, Massachusetts||The island of Nantucket claims their neutrality in the war.|
|Battle of Plattsburgh||September 11||Lake Champlain||U.S. secure northern border with a victory over a much larger British force.|
|Battle of North Point||September 12||Baltimore||After the British capture and burn Washington, the Americans collide with the British outside of Baltimore at North Point. British General Ross is killed, and the British sustain 360 casualties. Americans fall back to Baltimore.|
|Battle of Baltimore||September 13-14||Baltimore, Maryland||American forces ward off a combined British army of 5,000 and a sea invasion of 19 ships at Fort McHenry in Baltimore. The Star Spangled Banner is written by Francis Scott Key after he witnesses the Battle of Baltimore.|
|American forces attack from Fort Erie||September 17||Lake Ontario, Canada||American troops sortie out of the fort and manage to capture and wreck the British siege batteries.|
|The USS General Armstrong captured||September 26||Portuguese port of Horta||British break neutrality laws and capture Captain Reid and crew aboard the USS General Armstrong.|
|British ask for peace based on uti possidetis, a principle of international law allowing a belligerent to claim the territory it occupies at the end of a war||October 21||Washington, D.C.||The British want to end the war, but be entitled to hold occupied American soil.|
|Americans flee Fort Erie||November 5||Lake Ontario, Canada||With winter approaching, the Americans destroy Fort Erie and withdraw to Buffalo.|
|U.S. retakes Pensacola||November 7||Pensacola, Florida||General Andrew Jackson drives the British out of Pensacola.|
|Uti possidetis peace talks canceled||November 27||Washington, D.C.||Americans want the British out completely.|
|Battle of Lake Borgne||December 14||Lake Borgne, Louisiana||Lt. Thomas A.C. Jones and his small flotilla of five U.S. gunboats defeat British Captain Nicholas Lockyer’s three columns of 45 boats.|
|Hartford Convention||December 15||Hartford, Connecticut||A group of Federalists discuss secession and propose seven amendments to protect the influence of American Northeastern states.|
|Internal taxes||December 15-27||Washington, D.C.||Additional internal taxes enacted by the U.S. to help a weathered economy.|
|Premliminary battles at New Orleans.||December 23-January 1, 1815||New Orleans||Jackson and his men wage small skirmishes with the British leading up to the Battle of New Orleans.|
|Treaty of Ghent||December 24||Ghent, Belgium||British and American diplomats agree to return to the status quo from before the war.|
|Conscription proposal rejected in the U.S.||December 28||U.S.||The U.S. Army draft proposal is rejected by Americans.|
|Battle of New Orleans||January 8||New Orleans||Andrew Jackson defeats the British. Seven hundred British are killed and 1,400 wounded; while only eight Americans are killed and 13 wounded.|
|Enemy Trade Law||February 4||Washington, D.C.||Second Enemy Trade Law is enacted by the United States.|
|Treaty of Ghent reaches U.S.||February 11||Washington, D.C.||The treaty finally reaches America, even though the U.S. and British are still battling it out.|
|Treaty of Ghent is approved||February 16||Washington, D.C.||Treaty of Ghent is accepted by U.S. Senate and President Madison.|
|War of 1812 ends||February 17||U.S.||The war ends as the U.S. and Britain exchange concessions.|
Quotes regarding War of 1812 Time Table.
By Daniel Webster
The administration asserts the right to fill the ranks of the regular army by compulsion.... Is this, sir, consistent with the character of a free government? Is this civil liberty? Is this the real character of our Constitution? No, sir, indeed it is not. The Constitution is libeled.
Speech in House of Representatives.
By Winfield Scott
Men of the eleventh! the enemy say we are good at a long shot, but cannot stand the cold iron. I call on you to give the lie to that slander. Charge!
Battle of Chippewa, June 14, 1814
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